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Market discipline in the Central American banking system

2017 , Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio

The hypothesis of market discipline is empirically verified in the Central American banking system. A contrast is carried out on whether the riskier banks (the ones with the worst banking fundamentals) pay higher interest rates and receive smaller amounts in deposits. The generalized method of moments is used for dynamic panel data models (the SYS GMM estimator), as well as a sample of 30 banks from six Central American countries during the 2008–2012 period. Unlike the majority of the previous empirical literature, specifically for developed countries, no evidence of market discipline was found in Central America. The results are robust for several indicators of the banking fundamentals for purposes of internal demand of bank capital, and for other econometric models. These findings indicate weaknesses in the bank policy regarding the disclosure of information. © 2017 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Contaduría y Administración

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Export composition and the eurozone trade balance in manufacturing goods

2020 , Carrasco, C.A. , Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio

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Religiosity and Entrepreneurship in Post-Soviet Russia

2022 , Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio

This article empirically studies the associations between religion (Orthodox Christianity, Islam, and non-religion), religiosity (to be a believer or not, and to what extent), religious participation (attending divine services, meetings or other religious events) and the probabilities of being an entrepreneur in post-Soviet Russia. Using logistic regressions and data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, the findings suggest lower likelihoods of being an entrepreneur in the case of Orthodox Christians, religiosity shows mixed results, and religious participation presents positive links (increasing the probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur). Nevertheless, the negative association between Orthodoxy and entrepreneurship lacks statistical significance in several specifications. Indeed, only religious participation shows robust results, particularly for men. Note that religious participation is linked to social capital, namely, networking, facilitating resources for entrepreneurship. Therefore, in Russia, the religion-entrepreneurship nexus is associated with participation, and not precisely with religious affiliations or beliefs.

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Trilingualism, Bilingualism and Educational Achievements: The Case of Chuvash and Tatar in Rural Russia

2018 , Hèctor Alòs i Font , Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio

This study examined the relations among trilingualism, bilingualism, and educational achievements of school students in a rural environment in Chuvashia, Russia. Using our survey results of 913 school students of Chuvash ethnicity (67%) and Tatar ethnicity (28%) and ordered logistic regressions we found weak evidence for any positive association between trilingualism or bilingualism and educational achievements. Socio-economic status, cultural capital (approached with number of books at home), health issues, type of settlement, class grade, number of siblings, and gender were controlled. The results also indicated that fluency in Chuvash and in Tatar, mother tongue proficiency, language used at home, and language of instruction in the elementary grades were not adversely related to educational achievements. On the one hand, these findings partially disagree with previous studies, where a positive association was found. It is probable, that the rural versus urban environment explains these differences. On the other hand, the results confirm previous research in the Volga area of Russia that a growing concern among authorities on minority language students’ educational achievements is baseless. It rather suggests that policy-makers should be more concerned with increasing the equality of opportunities provided by the education system to persons of different socio-economic levels.

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Impacto de la estructura tributaria sobre el crecimiento económico: el caso de México

2018 , Banda-Ortiz Humberto , Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio

En este artículo se estudia empíricamente el impacto de la estructura tributaria sobre el crecimiento económico de México de 2005 a 2016. Se desarrolló un modelo econométrico usando como variables independientes: impuesto sobre la renta, impuesto al valor agregado, impuesto especial sobre la producción y servicios e impuesto sobre las importaciones. Los resultados mostraron un efecto negativo y significativo sobre el PIB per cápita del impuesto sobre la renta. Por el contrario, el impuesto al valor agregado mostró impactos positivos. Por lo tanto, la recomendación es apoyar una estructura tributaria donde el impuesto sobre la renta tenga poca relevancia. Por la falta de datos para algunas variables para años previos al 2005, el análisis está limitado al periodo de estudio enunciado. No obstante, esta es la primera investigación sobre el nexo crecimiento económico y estructura fiscal para México, aunque dicho nexo se ha estudiado en varios países desarrollados y en unos pocos países en vías de desarrollo. En línea con esa literatura, en México también se encuentra que la estructura tributaria afecta el crecimiento económico en el largo plazo.

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The associations of different types of sports and exercise with health status and diseases: evidence from Russian longitudinal data

2021 , Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio

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Bilingual schooling and wage income: the case of Tatarstan in Russia

2020 , Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio

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Trade and growth in developing countries: the role of export composition, import composition and export diversification

2020 , Carlos A. Carrasco , Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio

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Tracking the Characteristics of Economic Growth Vulnerability to COVID-19: A Preliminary Analysis

2020 , Carlos Alberto Carrasco , Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio

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Participation in sports, physical exercise, and wage income: Evidence from Russian longitudinal data

2021 , Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio