Now showing 1 - 10 of 44
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Sobre contratos y usura en Manuel Rodríguez, el Lusitano

2016 , Aspe-Armella, Virginia , Scalzo, Germán

En este artículo se analiza la obra Suma de casos de conciencia, del portugués Manuel Rodríguez –el Lusitano–, con el fin de obtener una mayor comprensión de la proyección del pensamiento económico de la Escuela de Salamanca. El estudio de este autor de la segunda mitad del siglo XVI permite profundizar en la evolución de dicha Escuela, mediante la comparación entre los distintos modos de responder a los desafíos que se fueron presentando a través del tiempo. Los elementos comunes a la Escuela en su evolución permiten delinear el espíritu que inspiró a estos teólogos morales y son una oportunidad para encontrar claves que permitan interpretar la vida económica actual desde una antropología de la justicia. ©2016 Cauriensia, Universidad de Extremadura.

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Autonomous Self and Inter-Processual Self: Two Ways of Explaining How People “See” and Live Relationships and the Resulting Dialogue Between Science and Faith

2019 , Orón, José Víctor , Akrivou, Kleio , Scalzo, Germán

The relationship between science and faith is not a given, nor is it objectively defined, but rather depends on personal ways of approaching this relationship. Accordingly, it can be lived as a conflict, i.e. as agency striving to master independent and separate domains or as a process of dialogue or an integral relationship. In this chapter, we suggest that adopting one stance or the other depends on factors that go beyond the rational assessment that a person makes of science or faith. To explain the perspective that people adopt, cross-disciplinary theoretical insights relevant to human beings and their development are decisive. Based on previous research consolidating several theoretical proposals across a diverse disciplinary orientation (mainly philosophy, psychology and neuroscience), we suggest that there are two contrasting paradigms for conceiving of the self and human development, namely, the autonomous self (AS) and the inter-processual self (IPS) (Akrivou K, Orón JV: Challenges of capitalism for virtue and the common good: Inter-disciplinary perspectives. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2016). We purport here that, depending on which of these two corresponding backgrounds characterises the person, people will ‘see’ and live the relationship—dialogue between science and faith—differently.© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature.

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Virtues, the Common Good, and Business Legitimacy

2020-09-10 , Scalzo, Germán , Akrivou, Kleio

When it comes to contributing to the wider society’s common good, organizations’ considerable ethical failures have weakened overall trust in business firms. Mainstream legitimacy theory fails to address normative issues on the ethical responsibilities of management toward and the role of business in society. This chapter reviews the main approaches to business legitimacy linked with institutional theory in light of the virtue ethics tradition to show how a virtuous management paradigm can enable a better relationship between the firm and its stakeholders, promoting their well-being and contributing to the common good of society as a whole. To facilitate a richer and more nuanced understanding of virtue ethics’ concerns, it applies key terms from Aristotelian virtue ethics to discussion of the role of management and ethical communication in the context of business legitimacy. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020.

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Exploring the vulnerability of practice-like activities: An ethnographic perspective

2022 , Bolade-Ogunfodun, Yemisi , Sinnicks, Matthew , Akrivou, Kleio , Scalzo, Germán

Introduction: This paper explores the vulnerability of practice-like activities to institutional domination. Methods: This paper offers an ethnographic case study of a UK-based engineering company in the aftermath of its acquisition, focusing in particular on its R&D unit. Results: The Lab struggled to maintain its practice-based work in an institutional environment that emphasized the pursuit of external goods. Discussion: We use this case to develop two arguments. Firstly, we illustrate the concept of “practice-like” activities and explore their vulnerability to institutional domination. Secondly, in light of the style of management on display after the takeover, we offer further support to MacIntyre's critique of management. Finally, based on the empirical data we reflect on the importance of organizational culture, as well as friendship and the achievement of a common good in business organizations for these kinds of activities. Copyright © 2022 Bolade-Ogunfodun, Sinnicks, Akrivou and Scalzo.

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Whose work? Which markets? Rethinking work and markets in light of virtue ethics

2022 , Pinto-Garay, Javier , Scalzo, Germán , Schlag, Martin

Neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics applied to work and business theory have received increasing attention due to Alasdair MacIntyre's philosophy. At the same time, this approach has been accused of being inapplicable, a romantic nostalgia for an ideal world far from the reality of today's markets. Moreover, the more this theory evolves, the bigger the gap seems to become, as if good work were at odds with its economic dimension. This paper aims to address this gap by explaining how MacIntyre's neo-Aristotelianism conceives of the economic dimension of good work. In particular, we claim that it is consistent with MacIntyre's philosophy that said economic dimension of work can be defined in terms of excellence and virtue, particularly in accordance with the virtues of justice and unity of life. However, for these virtues of good work to be practicable, a reconsideration of market practices performed under the logic of giving and receiving is needed. Hence, defining and sustaining an economic dimension of good work in MacIntyre also depend on the possibility of market practices being defined as excellent.

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Melé Carné, D. (2020). Valor humano y cristiano del trabajo. Enseñanzas de S. Juan Pablo II. EUNSA. Colección Astrolabio Economía y Empresa. 384 pp.

2022 , Scalzo, Germán

La reflexión sobre el trabajo ha estado presente en la filosofía desde sus orígenes, aunque no ha estado exenta de limitaciones, reduccionismos y prejuicios que no hacen justicia a esta realidad tan importante para la vida del hombre. En efecto, como ha señalado la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia (DSI) desde sus inicios, el trabajo ocupa una posición central en la cuestión social y se fundamenta en la verdad sobre el hombre. A pesar del esfuerzo moderno de la teoría económica por basar la reflexión sobre la actividad económica en un agente universal y abstracto —que, aunque con variantes, podría resumirse en el paradigma del homo oeconomicus—, en los últimos años se ha puesto de manifiesto que dicha reflexión es estéril si no se fundamenta en una concepción antropológica realista y verdadera. Este ha sido precisamente el objetivo fundacional de la DSI: profundizar en la verdad sobre el hombre para ofrecer elementos de reflexión, criterios de juicio y directrices de acción que puedan guiar a la razón práctica para contribuir al bien común. En lo que respecta específicamente al trabajo, la aportación de san Juan Pablo II (JP II) ha sido fundamental, y el libro que aquí se reseña es fruto de varias décadas de reflexión sobre este tema que ha captado la atención del autor —profesor emérito del IESE Business School— de manera singular desde el inicio de su fructífera carrera en el ámbito académico de la ética empresarial. Derechos de autor 2022 Tópicos, Revista de Filosofía

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The role of empathy in shared intentionality: Contributions from Inter-Processual Self theory

2023 , Luis, Elkin O. , Martínez, Martín , Akrivou, Kleio , Scalzo, Germán , Aoiz, Martín , Orón Semper, José Víctor

Research in psychology related to the conceptualization of empathy has been on the rise in the last decades. However, we argue that there is still space for further research to help capture the important notion of empathy and its theoretical and conceptual depth. Following a critical review of the current state of the research that conceptualizes and measures empathy, we focus on works that highlight the importance of a shared vision and its relevance in psychology and neuroscience. Considering the state of the art of current neuroscientific and psychological approaches to empathy, we argue for the relevance of shared intention and shared vision in empathy-related actions. Upon review of different models that emphasize a shared vision for informing research on empathy, we suggest that a newly developed theory of self, human growth and action–the so-called Inter-Processual Self theory (IPS)–can significantly and novelly inform the theorization on empathy beyond what the literature has stated to date. Then, we show how an understanding of integrity as a relational act that requires empathy is an essential mechanism for current key research on empathy and its related concepts and models. Ultimately, we aim to present IPS as a distinctive proposal to expand upon the conceptualization of empathy. Copyright © 2023 Luis, Martínez, Akrivou, Scalzo, Aoiz and Orón Semper.

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How much (more) is fair to pay? The ethics of merit in assessing poverty wages in organizations

2024 , Pinto, Javier , Scalzo, Germán

Purpose This study aims to conduct a comprehensive analysis of poverty salaries and minimum wage in light of virtue ethics and a new natural law perspective on work. Design/methodology/approach Existing approaches to poverty wages are critically examined, including the nonworseness claim and legal minimalism. This paper introduces a more nuanced framework, taking into account the concepts of merit and participation in light of virtue ethics. Findings We argue that the fairness of minimum wage policies can be assessed as a matter of contributive-distributive justice by considering individual contributions to an organization's outcomes within an approach that provides a robust foundation for reconciling the dignity of work with the operational realities of organizations. Research limitations/implications Empirical research is needed to validate the practical application of the proposed conceptual framework for addressing poverty wages. Practical implications The paper provides better decisional arguments for employers concerned with poverty salaries in their organizations considering the moral dimensions of wage policies and employee well-being, offering guidance for potential adjustments in compensation practices. It also contributes to the discourse on social and economic justice by emphasizing the moral obligations of organizations in fostering a just and dignified work environment without the employee's participation. Originality/value This paper presents a novel approach that blends virtue ethics and new natural law principles, emphasizing the moral responsibilities of employers and organizations in addressing the conditions of the working poor. It also highlights the potential for a “lesser evil” situation, morally acceptable when it serves as a transitional phase aimed at improving working conditions and employee well-being.

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Autonomy and subordination: virtuous work in light of aristotelian practical knowledge in organizational theory

2021 , Pinto-Garay, Javier , Scalzo, Germán , Ferrero, Ignacio

This paper aims to integrate the concept of autonomous and subordinated work into Aristotelian organizational theory by enhancing the epistemological framework of neo-Aristotelianism and by adding a Thomistic interpretation of organizational practical knowledge. We sustain that, in order to advance our understanding of the firm in terms of excellence and the common good, the concept of practical knowledge applied to organizational theory requires reflection on the nature of work in modern organizations. For this, we will explain (i) how an organization that aims for excellence is most appropriately defined as a community of autonomous work, (ii) how practical knowledge in organizations must be defined considering work as deliberative production and, finally, (iii) how productivity in organizations is best described when work is envisioned in terms of autonomy and subordination. ©2021 Business & Professional Ethics Journal.

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La lógica del don en las relaciones humanas: Economía y reciprocidad a la luz de los radicales polianos

2022 , Scalzo, Germán , Moreno-Almárcegui, Antonio

Con el fin de cuestionar la primacía del contrato sobre la lógica del don en la modernidad, se contrastan tres arquetipos de relación social a la luz de los radicales polianos, así como los tipos de reciprocidad que se derivan de cada uno de ellos. A la reciprocidad cerrada-dual moderna se opone la reciprocidad abierta-triádica, que es la que caracteriza a las relaciones de don, tanto en su versión clásica como cristiana. Se concluye que sólo el radical cristiano de la persona integra la lógica del don con el sentido radical de la libertad, desde una antropología que complementa la práctica de virtudes como camino de perfección moral con la apertura a la trascendencia y la ayuda al más necesitado. ©2022 Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Navarra. All rights reserved.