Poly-Cauchy numbers with level 2
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We introduce poly-Cauchy numbers with level 2. Poly-Cauchy numbers may be interpreted as a kind of generalizations of the classical Cauchy numbers by using the inverse relation of exponentials and logarithms. On the contrary, poly-Bernoulli numbers can be from the inverse relation of logarithms and exponentials. In this similar stream, poly-Cauchy numbers with level 2 may be yielded from the inverse relation about the hyperbolic sine function, which is a 2-step function of the exponential function. In this article, we show several expressions, relations, and properties about poly-Cauchy numbers with level 2. Poly-Cauchy numbers with level 2 can be expressed in terms of multinomial coefficients with combinatorial summation, Stirling numbers of the first kind, or iterated integrals. We also give some recurrence relations for poly-Cauchy numbers with level 2. When the index is negative, the double summation may be formulated as a closed form. A simple case of Cauchy numbers with level 2 has some more relations with D numbers from higher-order Bernoulli numbers or complementary Euler numbers. We prove some more expressions in determinants, continued fractions or by Trudi's formula. © 2020, © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
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